Battle of Grunwald 1410
Battle of Grunwald by Jan Matejko, 1878.
A 16th-century engraving depicting the Battle of Tannenberg (Battle of Grunwald).
Prussia 800-1400 AD
The Old Prussians withstood many attempts at conquest preceding the Teutonic Knights. In the 13th Century Konrad of Masovia tried for years to conquer Prussia and called in the Crusades. The pope brought in the Teutonic Knights who created the Teutonic Order State through crusades from 1230 onward. They set up the Ordensburg Marienburg (today called Malbork) as the centre of Prussia. The Order’s conquest of pagan Old Prussia included the historic regions of Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia and Samogitia (in the modern countries of Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Sweden). The military conquest paved the way for German colonization (Ostsiedlung) and the promulgation of laws modeled on German towns (e.g., Magdeburg and Lubeck).
Is it weird that I want a print of the decisive battle of the Italian Wars of 1521-26? The Battle of Pavia, between the Hapsburg Spanish-Imperial army and the French army under Francis I. It was after this battle that Francis I was in captivity for a year in Spain, and then he was like “Huhh, this whole united Christendom thing isn’t really working out for me… guess I’ll go talk to Sultan Suleiman about maybe bein’ friends.”
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire. Originally arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples, the wars rapidly became a general struggle for power and territory among their various participants, and were marked with an increasing number of alliances, counter-alliances, and betrayals.
In the picture: The Battle of Pavia, Tapestry in the Galleria Nazionale di Capodimonte (Naples).
Unknown Flamish Artist, Battle of Pavia
The Battle of Pavia by Ruprecht Heller.
The French army of King Francis I and the army of Charles V of the Hapsburg Empire clashed at Pavia in 1525. The French army, more reliant on heavy cavalry and with inferior infantry, were slaughtered by the more modern Imperial forces, helping cement the superiority of firearms as the most important personal arm on the battlefield.
Batalla de Pavía 1525, los arcabuceros españoles destrozan a los gendarmes franceses.
Capodimonte tapestry, the capture of Francis I.